Agrarian Reform in Russia: The Road from Serfdom by Carol S. Leonard

By Carol S. Leonard

This booklet examines the heritage of reforms and significant country interventions affecting Russian agriculture: the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the Stolypin reforms, the NEP, the Collectivization, Khrushchev reforms, and at last farm company privatization within the early Nineteen Nineties. It exhibits a development rising from a political relevant in imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet regimes, and it describes how those reforms have been justified within the identify of the nationwide curiosity in the course of critical crises - quick inflation, army defeat, mass moves, rural unrest, and/or political turmoil. It seems to be on the effects of adversity within the financial setting for rural habit after reform and at long-run traits. It has chapters on estate rights, rural association, and technological swap. It presents a brand new database for measuring agricultural productiveness from 1861 to 1913 and updates those estimates to the current. This booklet is a examine of the regulations geared toward reorganizing rural construction and their effectiveness in reworking associations.

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95 Some signs of recovery and macroeconomic stability were achieved by 1995, but in 1998 another financial crisis spread from Asia and affected Russia’s exposed banking sector. The transformational recession finally bottomed out in 2000. Subsequent recovery was rapid. The rise in the growth rate paralleled a rise in government revenues, which was buoyed by high global prices for Russia’s abundant mineral resources. 96 To summarize, in the Soviet era and afterwards, during the transition from Communism, agricultural trends paralleled those in industry.

1 for the late 1850s shows elevated levels of debt in the pre-abolition era. This would account for the urgency of an increase in permanent revenues, that is, by expanding or changing the tax base, as occurred in 1861 and in the reforms thereafter. The tsarist regime might have extended the incidence of taxes to the nobility, and there was a proposal in Russia to institute personal income tax put forward in 1861 by Minister of Internal Affairs P. A. Valuev. 46 Hoch (1991). 36 Agrarian Reform in Russia However, it was rejected by the state committee for financial reform.

See Zaionchkovskii (1954), Ch. 1. See Moon (1999), pp. 96–7. Moon (2001b), p. 653. To this category belonged the collection of peasants not previously enserfed. The creation of Peter I, the state domains were under the Treasury control. The category embraced former odnodvortsy (single householders), descendants of military servitors who had settled on the southern frontiers and Siberia after serving there, and the Tatar and other non-Slavic ethnicities who resided in the Volga basin and elsewhere, including tax-paying state peasants (chernososhnie), Siberian plowmen (pashennie liudi), and peasants from the Volga and Ural regions who paid tax in furs (iasachnie).

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