Advanced Topics in Information Resources Management , Vol 3 by Mehdi Khosrow-Pour (Editor)

By Mehdi Khosrow-Pour (Editor)

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Tokelau contains 3 atolls, Atafu, Nukunono and Fakaofo, positioned 750 miles northwest of Samoa. Tokelauan belongs to the Polynesian sub-group of Austronesian. it really is spoken by means of approximately nearly 5000 humans, of whom approximately 1600 stay within the atolls, approximately 3000 in New Zealand, and several other hundred in different places within the Pacific area.

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According to an Icelandic saga of the eleventh century “there was at that time the same tongue in England as in Norway and Denmark” (Freeborn 1992: 30). In the following, some of the texts from the different dialectal areas are introduced to the reader because their place and date of origin is important if we want to come to a conclusion wrt the origin and spread of syntactic changes. Therefore, the reader should be familiar with the variety of texts written in different Middle English dialects.

As will be shown below, one type of extension is lexical extension which has also been called lexical diffusion. These two factors as well as another factor, language contact, will be discussed in this chapter. According to Harris and Campbell (1995) there are three basic mechanisms reanalysis, extension and borrowing which can be identified in a language undergoing syntactic change. As noted above, reanalysis and extension involve change internal to a language and are thus discussed under the subsection Internal Mechanisms.

Thus in Modern English, verbs like hate may take the for ... to pattern whereas verbs like expect cannot. This is illustrated below: (10) I hate for you to leave early. (11) *I expect for you to leave early. Examples (10) and (11) show synchronic differences among verbs in these contexts. , that some verbs take the for ... to pattern and some verbs do not. They further note that changes which involve complementation in one way or another spread through the lexicon. This is what happened in the following example: Warner (1982) showed that in Middle English, the verb bigynne could occur with the for ...

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