Advanced Computing in Electron Microscopy by Earl J. Kirkland

By Earl J. Kirkland

Preface to moment variation a number of new issues were extra, a few small error were corrected and a few new references were further during this version. New subject matters comprise aberration corrected tools, scanning confocal mode of operations, Bloch wave eigenvalue equipment and parallel computing suggestions. The ?rst variation - cluded a CD with machine courses, which isn't incorporated during this version. - stead the linked courses may be on hand on an linked site (currently˜kirkland,but may possibly circulate as time is going on). I desire to thank Mick Thomas for getting ready the specimen used to checklist the picture in Fig.5.26 and to thank Stephen P. Meisburger for suggesting an enticing organic specimen to take advantage of in Fig.7.24. back, I ask for forgiveness prematurely for leaving out a few undoubtedlyoutstanding r- erences. I additionally ask for forgiveness for the as but undiscovered mistakes that stay within the textual content. Earl J. Kirkland, December 2009 Preface to First version picture simulation has turn into a standard software in HREM (High solution El- tron Microscopy) in recent times. although, the literature at the topic is scattered between many various journals and convention complaints that experience happened within the final or 3 a long time. it really is dif?cult for newcomers to start during this ?eld.

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Therefore during image simulation each pixel should be represented as a floating point number with much more than 8 bits per pixel. Most computer hardware is equipped to handle 32 bit single precision (typically there is one sign bit, 8 exponent bits and 23 mantissa bits) and 64 bit double precision floating point arithmetic. Single precision (32 bits) gives about six decimal digits of accuracy per pixel and is usually sufficient for most image calculations. Each arithmetic operation between two single precision floating point numbers can be thought of as adding an error of about ±1 in 106 or 1 in 6 digits.

The specimen is not self-luminous). The illuminating electrons (using a thermionic source) are produced by a spatially incoherent, quasimonochromatic source with non-zero size. 4). The electron rays incident on the specimen are not perfectly parallel but subtend a small cone of angles f3max at the specimen plane. 16>. 41) UXeoh'" -13-max 30 CHAPTER 3. 5: The BF phase contrast transfer function with and without partial coherence. If the coherence length is much smaller than the resolution element of the image then the imaging will be essentially incoherent.

The incident electrons have an angle (3. The specimen scatters at an angle )'k and the final angle into the objective lens is 0 (angles measured with respect to the optic axis). A single electron trajectory is shown on the left and the total illumination of a single point on the image is shown on the right. (3max is typically the condenser aperture and Omax is the objective aperture. optic axis). Note that k,e is a two dimensional vector because (3 can vary in both the polar and azimuthal directions.

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