By Saroj Rout, Sameer Sonkusale
This e-book covers the theoretical historical past, experimental equipment and implementation information to engineer for verbal exchange and imaging program, terahertz units utilizing metamaterials, in mainstream semiconductor foundry methods. This ebook will supply engineers and physicists an authoritative connection with build such units with minimum historical past. The authors describe the layout and development of electromagnetic (EM) units for terahertz frequencies (108-1010 cycles/sec) utilizing synthetic fabrics which are a fragment of the wavelength of the incident EM wave, leading to an effective electric and magnetic houses (permittivity and permeability) which are unavailable in normal materials.
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Extra resources for Active Metamaterials: Terahertz Modulators and Detectors
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Most EM solvers, like Microwave Studio , also allow “periodic” and “unit cell” boundary conditions that can be used to repeat unit cells in one, two, or three dimensions. 2 Homogenous Parameter Extraction Extracting effective parameters ( eff ; eff ) for metamaterials is a powerful tool to characterize the frequency dependence constitutive parameters. 2) where the wavenumber of the incident wave is k D 2 = and d is the unit cell dimension. 3) eff It is difficult from experiments to measure the scattering parameters but it is easily calculated from simulations and the full material response can be calculated using Eqs.
15) where k is the wave number kD p ! 16) The phase velocity of the wave is vD 1 ! 18) r r The wave impedance Z can be expressed as E0 1 k ZD D D D H0 ! 14) that propagating waves exist in materials whether and are both positive or negative. In this equation, and enter as a product, so it would not appear to matter whether both the signs are positive or negative. Conventionally, we always express the refractive index n as p C > 0). r r for positive materials ( > 0; p But, one needs to be careful in taking the square root for n D ˙ r r , that is resolved by proper analysis.