Abd al-Rahman III by Maribel Fierro

By Maribel Fierro

Абд ар-Рахман III — эмир с 912 года, халиф с 929 года из династии кордовских Омейядов. Восстановил полураспавшийся при его предшественниках Кордовский эмират. В 931 году взял Сеуту, в 932 году — Толедо. С 955 года заставил королей Леона и Наварры платить дань. Отвоевал у Фатимидов часть Магриба (Северная Африка). Имел баскские корни (басками были его мать и мать отца).Абдаррахман заботился о развитии культуры и об усилении политической мощи, покровительствуя развитию сельского хозяйства, ремесла, торговли, литературы и просвещения. Упорядочил финансы, поощрял строительство. При нем были созданы крупные памятники искусства в столице и в других городах. Кордова стала одним из самых прекрасных городов мира; в этом городе было около полумиллиона жителей. Правление Абдаррахмана III — апогей расцвета аль-Андалуса и кордовских Омейядов.

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Most of the lords were acting independently from Cordoba, engaging in fights against each other and against the Christians, with shifting allegiances across the borders of religious affiliations. The latter had settled in the area by the middle of the ninth century with Umayyad support in order to check the power of the Banu Qasi, whose political and military power can be traced back to the eighth century. During the early years of ‘Abd al-Rahman III’s reign, the confrontation between the Banu Qasi and the Tujibids was accompanied by violent conflicts within those lineages.

During the same period, Andalusi sailors settled in Tenes and Oran, two ports in the North African coast that played an important role in Mediterranean trade during the tenth century. The ‘Abbasids had made unsuccessful attempts at recovering al-Andalus, and some tribal leaders had tried to win their support in order to legitimize their bid for power. But the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya (Tunis), who were in theory representatives of the ‘Abbasids, were in practice independent rulers, who never engaged in military confrontation with the Umayyads, although they gave their support to Andalusi rebels such as Ibn Hafsun.

Ibn al-Qitt preached, made predictions, and performed miracles,while at the same time criticizing the emir ‘Abd Allah for his ineptitude and the lack of jihad against the Christians, who were expanding the territory under their control in the north of the Iberian peninsula (around this time, the kingdom of Asturias changed its name to León, thus reflecting its territorial expansion). Having gathered many followers, Ibn al-Qitt attacked the town of Zamora, which had been rebuilt and repopulated by Alfonso III in 893.

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